Kaohsiung - Facilitating the energy self-sufficiency of industry

Assessment of the territories’ climate action


Association Climate Chance (Climate Chance)

Since 2015, the Climate Chance Association has been involved in the mobilization in the fight against climate change. It is the only international association that proposes to bring together on an equal footing all the non-State actors recognized by the UN. In order to strengthen their action and to give credibility to the climate stabilization scenarios, the Climate Chance Association launched in 2018 a Global Observatory of Non-State Climate Action, which aims to explain the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions, by crossing national public policies, with sectoral dynamics, private actors’ strategies, local public policies, and actions undertaken by the actors of the territory. In 2019, in order to analyse the coherence of local public policies, Climat Chance proposes 13 new case studies of cities and regions. Here, the Taiwanese port city of Kaohsiung.

À télécharger : climate-chance-2019.pdf (1,5 Mio)

Governance and policy integration

The Municipal Government of Kaohsiung City defined in 2015 its first Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Plan, divided between mitigation and adaptation. The implementation of the measures necessary to achieve the objectives of each of the different themes is entrusted to different municipal secretariats such as economic development, environmental protection, agriculture and public works. For each of the six topics, short-, medium- and long-term objectives have been defined.

The Government of Taiwan does not intervene directly in the implementation of the plan but helps to define it by providing guidelines to local authorities and a certain amount of data necessary for its proper definition. Finally, it intervenes downstream by co-financing certain green energy development or water drainage projects. The adaptation part of the plan is also divided by the challenges facing the city: resilience to natural disasters, infrastructure, health, coastal zones, water resources, energy, land use, and agriculture and biodiversity protection.

Evaluation and monitoring of climate policy

As early as 2005, Kaohsiung began to increase its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions annually. The target of -30% of GHG emissions in 2020 compared to 2005 remained in force until 2016 and was then reduced to 20%. Between 2005 and 2018, the municipality achieved a 13.23% reduction in emissions.

Between 2005 and 2017, Kaohsiung’s carbon footprint was reduced by 13.07%, from 67 to 58 million tonnes of CO2 eq (MtCO2eq). In 2017, Kaohsiung’s GHG emissions were overwhelmingly from its industry (45%), followed by transportation (13%) and commercial and residential buildings (8% each). The remainder came from agriculture and land use.

Mobility - Modal share of public transport still low

In Kaohsiung, the preferred mode of transport for residents is the motorcycle/scooter (61.3% of trips in 2017) followed by the private car (20.5%). Public transport, walking and cycling account for 7%, 4.5% and 5.4% of trips respectively. In 2016, 172,400 daily trips were made by metro, an increase of 4.5% over the previous year. The increase in the modal share of public transport can be explained by programmes such as «  Live your best life in Kaohsiung  » containing measures such as fare integration of all modes of transport or educational measures to encourage modal shift.

Gentle mobility is encouraged through the development of sidewalks to facilitate pedestrian traffic and prevent the parking of scooters. By 2015, a 755-km network of cycle paths had been built, and the city was aiming for 1,000 km by 2018. A bicycle rental system called C-bike was also set up.

Kaohsiung Municipality is also working to increase the number of electric vehicles, both for the bus fleet and for private cars and scooters. In 2018, 9.7% of the fleet was electric. To wait for 100% in 2030, fuel tax reductions for holders of electric vehicles will be added to subsidies for the purchase of electric scooters and bicycles. Thus, between 2016 and 2017, 150,000 two-wheelers were taken off the road while 6,020 new electric scooters were purchased.

In 2017, at the ICLEI World Eco-mobility Congress hosted by Kaohsiung, the participating cities adopted « Kaoshiung’s Strategies for the Future of Urban Mobility », focusing on three main areas: public transport, electric vehicles and citizen awareness to encourage modal shift. The historic district of Hamasen was closed to car traffic for the duration of the congress.

Energy - A pioneering territory in Taiwan for the development of «  green  energies… 

In order to limit the large share of CO2 emissions produced by industry, Kaohsiung Municipality has developed green energy sources and self-consumption. Favoured by the high rate of sunshine, this policy has transformed the city into a pioneering field for solar energy in Asia. In 2010 the municipality inaugurated the «  Koahsiung Science Park  » cluster, a place of innovation for LED, solar and biotechnology technologies. It is also the largest solar photovoltaic power plant in Asia with a capacity ranging from 1 MW to 10 MW. A year earlier, in 2009, the city also inaugurated its solar stadium, with 8,844 solar panels that make it energy independent. The energy not consumed by the stadium can supply up to 80% of the district’s energy needs, thus avoiding 660 tons of carbon emissions per year. In 2012, the municipality defined its law for photovoltaic buildings to encourage the installation of solar panels on the roofs of the city, aiming for an annual production of 19.92 million KWh, or 12,400 tonnes of CO (tCO ) per year avoided.

Kaohsiung was also a pioneer in the development of biogas technology with the construction of the Hsichingpu methane power plant in 2000. This plant supplies 4,600 households and reduces 5,000 tCO2 each year.

Habitat: demanding local regulation

The  Kaohsiung City Green Building Autonomy Act  of 2012 regulates the construction of new buildings in a more stringent manner than national law. It applies to buildings for public use (whether owned by public or private actors), under construction, but also to the renovation of existing buildings. Prerequisites are different according to the size of the building, but they include among others : the installation of solar panels, greening of roofs, improvement of thermal insulation, rainwater harvesting systems, use of ecological building materials or the installation of bicycle garages.

On the other hand, the city encourages more environmentally friendly constructions for which permits are easily granted. In 2013, 230 building permits were issued, allowing the installation of 31,788 m² of green roofs, an increase in solar energy production of 4,616 kWp, the creation of 1,657 bicycle parking spaces, the equivalent of 16,200 m3 of rainwater recovery tanks. Between 2011 and 2013, the greening of roofs has enabled a reduction of 1,402.64 tonnes of CO2

Adaptation - Creating Vertical Forests

In order to combat the high heat that affects Kaohsiung city in summer due to its tropical climate, the municipality decided to encourage residents with a balcony to plant flowers, shrubs and other plants to refresh the structures and create a kind of vertical forest. By 2018, some 400 households had applied for this installation permit for a total of 180,000 m².

To cope with the high risk of flooding, fifteen urban water retention basins have been built. These basins allow a reduction of the flood peak, the retention of underground water, the preservation of the habitat and the provision of leisure spaces. They would have allowed the reduction of flooded areas by almost 80%.}


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