Paris - A new climate plan, the result of a wide-ranging consultation process
Assessment of the territories’ climate action
Association Climate Chance (Climate Chance)
Since 2015, the Climate Chance Association has been involved in the mobilization in the fight against climate change. It is the only international association that proposes to bring together on an equal footing all the non-State actors recognized by the UN. In order to strengthen their action and to give credibility to the climate stabilization scenarios, the Climate Chance Association launched in 2018 a Global Observatory of Non-State Climate Action, which aims to explain the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions, by crossing national public policies, with sectoral dynamics, private actors’ strategies, local public policies, and actions undertaken by the actors of the territory. In order to analyse the coherence of local public policies, Climat Chance proposes an assessment of « territorial mobilisations » through selected examples of cities and regions. Here, Paris.
Between 2004 and 2014, the Territory’s carbon footprint decreased by nearly 10 per cent (- 2.6 MtCO2eq) and energy consumption by 7 per cent. Following extensive consultation involving more than 700 proposals, the Territorial Climate Air and Energy Plan (PCAET) was unanimously adopted in March 2018 by the Paris Council, replacing a first plan designed in 2007. In order to halve energy consumption by 2050, the City of Paris is prioritising the renovation of housing and the reduction of the most carbon-intensive transport, two fundamental actions to enable the gradual use of renewable and recuperation energies (25% in 2020, 100% in 2050). In 2014, Paris consumed 17% renewable energy, 5% of which was produced locally.
BUILDINGS, THE LEADING ENERGY CONSUMERS
In 2014, Paris consumed more than 36 TWh of energy, 85% of which was consumed by the 110,000 commercial and residential buildings. By 2050, more than one million housing units will need to have undergone thermal renovation. Since 2008, social landlords have been aiming for a 30% reduction in the energy consumption of 55,000 homes by 2020. To date, 36,200 social housing units have been or are being renovated, resulting in average savings of €360/year per household and more than 7,500 jobs created. In addition, « Eco-Renovons Paris » (2016-2020) aims to support 1,000 buildings in their renovation projects, and has already benefited 328 condominiums (19,225 units) as of December 2017.
SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY POLICY AND RECLAIMING PUBLIC SPACE
This policy involves accelerating behavioural change (better shared vehicles, active travel), developing public transport and putting an end to diesel and petrol engines. Since 2001, it has made it possible to reduce GHG emissions by 39%, and more than 50% of the majority of air pollutants via more than +700 km of cycle paths, 23,600 « Velib’ » bicycles with free access, the extension of metro lines around Paris, and the creation of 24 km of tramways. From the summer of 2017, five new districts will benefit from the Paris Respire scheme, which offers spaces for walking in lanes closed to cars on Sundays and public holidays. In addition, the Champs-Elysées and the centre of the capital are now dedicated to pedestrians and gentle traffic every first Sunday of the month.
INNOVATIVE FINANCING MECHANISMS
Paris has set up a territorial investment fund for ecological transition, « Paris Fonds Vert ». With an investment target of €200 million and an initial fund raising of €100 million, the first investments in innovative SMEs in the building, mobility, energy, air quality or circular economy sectors can be made before the end of 2018. To speed up the transition, Paris is studying the implementation of a carbon compensation mechanism that will make it possible to finance reduction and sequestration projects for incompressible emissions.
RESILIENCE, SOCIAL INCLUSION and SUSTAINABLE FOOD
In order to reduce the impact of urban heat islands and heat waves, a programme of vegetalisation in Paris has made it possible in ten years to increase the number of gardens open to the public by 70 hectares. In September 2017, the adaptation strategy was integrated into a more comprehensive vision by adopting Paris’ first resilience strategy to adapt to climate change, strengthen solidarity and facilitate inclusion. Finally, in May 2018, the Territory’s first food strategy was adopted at the Paris Council to reduce the carbon footprint of the food sector (currently 18 per cent). Through its Sustainable Food Plan, Paris has become the leading public purchaser of organic food in France.